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By Jaegwon Kim, Visit Amazon's Ernest Sosa Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Ernest Sosa, , Gary S. Rosenkrantz

Totally prolonged and revised, A better half to Metaphysics 2d Edition contains a element of certain overview essays from well known metaphysicians, and the addition of greater than 30 new encyclopedic entries, taking the variety of entries to over three hundred.

  • Includes revisions to current encyclopedic entries
  • Features greater than 30 all-new "A to Z" entries
  • Offers a piece of in-depth, essays from well known metaphysicians
  • Provides the main whole and up to date reference advisor for college students and pros alike

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Without being caused or determined, because explanations in terms of reasons are not causal explanations. Noncausalist views raise important questions of action theory about the nature of action, about the distinction between actions and other events (see event theory), about whether reasons for action can be causes of action, and so on. Critics of non-causalist or simple indeterminist views note that, for non-causalists, free actions are literally uncaused events, and the critics raise questions about how events that are uncaused can be under the control of agents.

Of course, this in itself is a highly contentious question. Here I shall simply state one widely held view of the matter, which is that a concept is a way of thinking of some thing or things (Lowe, 2006, pp. 85–6). Since thought is a mental process, this means, in effect, that concepts are mental properties of a certain kind. For properties or qualities, quite generally, are ways of being – ways things are (Lowe, 2006, pp. 14, 90–1). For example, roundness is a way of being shaped and redness is a way of being colored.

Qxd 1/12/09 3:04 PM Page 31 i ndivi duat i on the most general terms that still convey criteria of identity for the objects to which they apply. And categorial terms fall, in respect of their degree of generality, in between regular sortal terms and transcategorial terms, such as “material object”. I must emphasize that criteria of identity, on this view, are not empirically discoverable principles, but are, rather, a priori ontological principles which delimit what is and is not metaphysically possible for the objects governed by them (Lowe, 1998, ch.

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