Download A History of the Work Concept: From Physics to Economics by Agamenon R. E. Oliveira PDF

By Agamenon R. E. Oliveira

This e-book strains the background of the idea that of labor from its earliest phases and exhibits that its additional formalization ends up in equilibrium precept and to the main of digital works, and so pointing the way in which forward for destiny study and applications.

The concept that anything continues to be consistent in a desktop operation is particularly previous and has been expressed via many mathematicians and philosophers equivalent to, for example, Aristotle. therefore, an idea of power constructed. one other vital notion in computing device operation is Archimedes' lever principle.

In sleek occasions the idea that of labor is analyzed within the context of utilized mechanics typically in Lazare Carnot mechanics and the mechanics of the hot iteration of polytechnical engineers like Navier, Coriolis and Poncelet. during this context the notice "work" is ultimately followed. those engineers also are answerable for the incorporation of the idea that of labor into the self-discipline of economics after they endeavoured to mix the learn of the paintings of machines and males together.

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To rationalism, the past is an error whose knowledge is useful to eliminate the progress of rationality; to empiricism the past is a mass of real facts, that are exact with respect to a conjectural future; only a dialectical attitude can accomplish the synthesis, encompassing the past as a stage and necessary way, worth to a common action of men of the same class of the present, in order to build an authentic community and universal in the future (Goldmann 1970). It seems clear from the long quotation above that the object of historical sciences is built by human actions from all places and all times.

Among these are biological communities, which are interacting groups of organisms, and ecosystems, which are biological communities together with their nonliving environments. The term ecology (ökologie) was coined by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919) in his Generelle Morphologie der Organismen, published in 1866. He also defined the new science as follows: By ecology we mean the body of knowledge concerning the economy of nature—the investigation of the total relations of the animal both to its organic and inorganic environment; including above all, its friendly and inimical relations with those animals and plants with which it comes directly or indirectly into contact—in a word, ecology is the study of all those complex interrelations referred to by Darwin as the conditions of the struggle for existence.

However, many elementary forms of logical reasoning are not yet available; (c) around 6 or 7 years of age, we achieve concrete operations. During this stage, logical structures for hierarchical classification become available, as do structures for seriation, conservation of physical quantities and mathematical operation of numbers; (d) from age 12, we move into formal operations. Formal thinking is marked by the ability to generate and work with larger spaces of possibilities systematically, including possibilities that are quite abstract.

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