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Media Access Control and Optimization In MANET, use of broadcasting and shared transmission media introduces a nonnegligible probability of packet collisions and media contention. 3. MANET network layers and research challenges. 4. 4. Hidden-terminal problem. as throughput, and brings new challenges to conventional CSMA/CD-based and MAC protocols in general. Among the top issues are the hidden-terminal and exposed-terminal problems. The hidden-terminal problem occurs when two (or more) terminals, say, A and C, cannot detect each other’s transmissions (due to being outside of each other transmission range) but their transmission ranges are not disjoint [38, 152].

It includes fast-flow reservation, restoration, and adaptation algorithms that are specifically designed to deliver adaptive real-time service in MANETs [136]. If the required resource is unavailable, the flow will be degraded to best-effort service. QoS reports are sent to the source node periodically to report network topology change as well as QoS statistics results such as loss rate, delay, and throughput etc. Other QoS signaling protocols proposed for MANET include dynamic RSVP (dRSVP) [145].

Designing network protocols and algorithms for this heterogeneous network can be complex, requiring dynamic adaptation to the changing power and channel conditions, traffic load/distribution variations, load balancing, congestion, and service environments. 6. Energy Constrained Operation. Because batteries carried by each mobile node have limited power, processing power is limited, which in turn limits services and applications that can be supported by each node. This becomes a bigger issue in mobile ad hoc networks because as each node is acting as both an end system and a router at the same time, additional energy is required to forward packets from other nodes [23].

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