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By Michael K. J. Goodman

An easy-to-read presentation of the early background of arithmetic

Engaging and available, An advent to the Early improvement of arithmetic provides a charming creation to the background of old arithmetic in early civilizations for a nontechnical viewers. Written with sensible functions in numerous components, the booklet makes use of the ancient context of arithmetic as a pedagogical software to aid readers operating via mathematical and old topics.

The publication is split into sections on major early civilizations together with Egypt, Babylonia, China, Greece, India, and the Islamic international. starting every one bankruptcy with a common historic assessment of the civilized region, the writer highlights the civilization’s mathematical options, quantity representations, accomplishments, demanding situations, and contributions to the mathematical global. completely class-tested, An creation to the Early improvement of arithmetic features:

  • Challenging routines that lead readers to a deeper figuring out of mathematics
  • Numerous appropriate examples and challenge units with precise factors of the approaches and recommendations on the finish of every chapter
  • Additional references on particular subject matters and keyword phrases from heritage, archeology, faith, tradition, and mathematics
  • Examples of useful purposes with step by step causes of the mathematical strategies and equations throughout the lens of early mathematical problems
  • A significant other site that comes with extra exercises

An advent to the Early improvement of arithmetic is a fantastic textbook for undergraduate classes at the background of arithmetic and a complement for hassle-free and secondary schooling majors. The ebook can be a suitable reference for pro and alternate audiences drawn to the background of mathematics.

Michael ok. J. Goodman is Adjunct arithmetic teacher at Westchester neighborhood collage, the place he teaches classes within the historical past of arithmetic, modern arithmetic, and algebra. he's additionally the landlord and operator of the educational Miracle, LLC, which supplies educational tutoring and try practise for either collage and highschool students.

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Extra info for An Introduction to the Early Development of Mathematics

Example text

When Egyptian ­hieroglyphics were finally deciphered, the walls of tombs and temples and pyramids were read, and count of enemies defeated, years reigned, and wealth accumulated were part of the narrative. Much more important for our understanding of how the Egyptians worked with numbers are the papyri. The plant papyrus was dried and pressed and converted into what we could call ancient paper (notice the similarity of the words papyrus and paper; and papyri is a better grammatical plural form than papyruses).

A good student exercise is to demonstrate the reliability of the two Egyptian multiplication methods. ) without using any power of two more than once. This verifies the first Egyptian method. Exercise Confirm that the second Egyptian method produces the same results as the first method, particularly with regard to which numbers to add to find the final result. This is a somewhat harder exercise. 13 EGYPTIAN NUMERICAL SYMBOLS Exercise Confirm that the results are the same whether we compute twelve 35s or thirty‐ five 12s by the first method, and whether we swap which number gets doubled and which gets cut in half in the second method.

9 Express 3 and as the sum of unit fractions. 10 Express 6 10 and as the sum of unit fractions. 13 13 The Egyptian procedure for solving algebra problems involved making a guess and using a formula to “correct” the guess. This procedure is called Egyptian false ­position, and it goes like this: 1 x 4 1 x 6 36 We want to solve for x, and we guess a value for x. Now, any guess will work, but it makes sense to make a guess that’s easy to work with, and in this case we want a guess that eliminates the fractions, because whole numbers are easier to work with.

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